How is the integral mode implemented on a digital controller?
Options: the digital controller cannot handle integral mode, the error is divided into discrete amounts, the error signal is summed over a discrete time interval and accumulated by the controller, All of the above
Data link layer retransmits the damaged frames in most networks. If the probability of a frame's being damaged is p, what is the mean number of transmissions required to send a frame if acknowledgements are never lost.
Options: P I (K + 1), KIK (1 + F), 1/ (1 - F), K I (K - P)